What is Cooling Tower
A 1902 engraving of “Barnard’s fanless self-cooling tower”, an early large evaporative cooling tower that relied on natural draft and open sides rather than a fan; water to be cooled was sprayed from the top onto the radial pattern of vertical wire-mesh mats.
Cooling towers originated out of the development in the 19th century of condensers for use with the steam engine.Condensers use relatively cool water, via various means, to condense the steam coming out of the pistons or turbines. This reduces the back pressure, which in turn reduces the steam consumption, and thus the fuel consumption, while at the same time increasing power and recycling boiler-water. However the condensers require an ample supply of cooling water, without which they are impractical—the cost of the water exceeds the savings on fuel. While this was not an issue with marine engines, it formed a significant limitation for many land-based systems.
By the turn of the 20th century, several evaporative methods of recycling cooling water were in use in areas without a suitable water supply, such as urban locations relying on municipal water mains. In areas with available land, the systems took the form of cooling ponds; in areas with limited land, such as in cities, it took the form of cooling towers.
These early towers were positioned either on the rooftops of buildings or as free-standing structures, supplied with air by fans or relying on natural airflow. An American engineering textbook from 1911 described one design as “a circular or rectangular shell of light plate — in effect, a chimney stack much shortened vertically (20 to 40 ft. high) and very much enlarged laterally. At the top is a set of distributing troughs, to which the water from the condenser must be pumped; from these it trickles down over “mats” made of wooden slats or woven wire screens, which fill the space within the tower.”
A hyperboloid cooling tower was patented by the Dutch engineers Frederik van Iterson and Gerard Kuypers in 1918. The first hyperboloid cooling towers were built in 1918 near Heerlen. The first ones in the United Kingdom were built in 1924 at Lister Drive power station in Liverpool, England to cool water used at a coal-fired electrical power station.
How Cooling Tower Work?
A cooling tower is a heat rejection device which rejects waste heat to the atmosphere through the cooling of a water stream to a lower temperature. Cooling towers may either use the evaporation of water to remove process heat and cool the working fluid to near the wet-bulb air temperature or, in the case of closed circuit dry cooling towers, rely solely on air to cool the working fluid to near the dry-bulb air temperature.
Common applications include cooling the circulating water used in oil refineries, petrochemical and other chemical plants, thermal power stations and HVAC systems for cooling buildings. The classification is based on the type of air induction into the tower: the main types of cooling towers are natural draft and induced draft cooling towers.
Cooling towers vary in size from small roof-top units to very large hyperboloid structures (as in the adjacent image) that can be up to 200 metres (660 ft) tall and 100 metres (330 ft) in diameter, or rectangular structures that can be over 40 metres (130 ft) tall and 80 metres (260 ft) long. The hyperboloid cooling towers are often associated with nuclear power plants, although they are also used to some extent in some large chemical and other industrial plants. Although these large towers are very prominent, the vast majority of cooling towers are much smaller, including many units installed on or near buildings to discharge heat from air conditioning.
About Cooling Tower Manufacturer – NATIONAL COOLING TOWER
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Contact us for your Cooling Tower requirements:
Cooling Tower Manufacturer – NATIONAL COOLING TOWER
26, Amrapali Industrial Estate,
Ram Mandir Road, Goregaon (W),
Mumbai – 400 104, Maharashtra INDIA
Phone:(91) 22 26765010 / 11 / 12, (91) 22 66949354
Fax: (91) 22 26765013